For the second time in three years, an 11th-century Chinese coin has been found in England, a possible indication that medieval trade between England and the Far East was more widespread than previously thought, according to a recent blog post by Cambridge historian Caitlin Green.
As Mark Bridge writes for the Sunday Times, the Northern Song Dynasty coin was discovered with a metal detector in a field in Hampshire, England. Dated to between 1008 and 1016 A.D., the 0.98-inch copper-alloy coin was the second medieval Chinese coin found in England; the first was found across the country in 2018 in Cheshire, per the Independent’s Jon Sharman. Other Chinese currency excavated in England dates to later periods.
When documenting the 2018 discovery, researchers at the British Museum wrote that, “It is doubtful that this is a genuine medieval find (i.e. present in the country due to trade and lost accidentally) but more likely a more recent loss from a curated collection.” But with the most recent news, Green argues that the presence of two similar coins increases the likelihood of them being genuine medieval finds.
Though losses from private collections can explain unexpected archaeological discoveries, Green points to documentary evidence that an Englishman served as an envoy from the Mongol emperor Ghengis Khan in the 1240s, which could explain the presence of the Chinese coins in England. Records also indicate that a Mongol envoy visited Edward II in 1313.
Treasure hunters uncovered both 11th-century coins near areas that have produced similar medieval artifacts. The more recent coin was unearthed about 20 miles away from the only confirmed medieval Chinese pottery in England, a fragment of blue and white porcelain from a small cup or bowl, per the Times. Other nearby uncoverings included a coin of King John minted between 1205 and 1207 and two 16th-century coins. Explorers dug up the 2018 discovery in a group of 24 finds, including two Roman coins; two late medieval lead weights; and 15 post-medieval artifacts, dating to the 16th to 18th centuries, such as coins of Elizabeth I, rings, trade weights and musket balls, according to a separate 2018 blog post.
“Such a potential 13th or 14th-century context for the arrival of an 11th-century Chinese coin in Britain is not only supported by the archaeological evidence, but also by documentary sources,” said Green in the 2018 blog post. “These texts make reference to both the presence of people from Britain and Ireland in East Asia and the presence of people who have, or may have, travelled from these regions in Britain during the 13th and 14th centuries.”
Oxygen supply in Southern England hospital reaches critical situation. It said the target range for oxygen levels that should be in patients’ blood had been cut from 92% to a baseline of 88-92%. : worldnews
This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 57%. (I’m a bot)
It said the target range for oxygen levels that should be in patients’ blood had been cut from 92% to a baseline of 88-92%. Hospital managing director, Yvonne Blucher, said it was “Working to manage” the situation.
It said it was “Imperative we use oxygen efficiently and safely” and states patients with an oxygen saturation of above 92% “Should have their oxygen weaned within the target range” which is now 88-92%. It added that “Maintaining saturations within this target range is safe and no patient will come to harm as a result”.
GPs in Essex have told the BBC that the threshold for sending a patient to hospital for supplemental oxygen is if their oxygen saturation is at 92%. A level of 96-100% is deemed normal.
Ok, I work in the agrochemical industry and I can give it a little more nuance.
It's not approved to last forever, not for all types of plants – it applies to sugar beets as an emergency permit for one year to deal with an aphid pest virus (which the Neonic is targeting). This type of emergency permits usually occurs when there is a particularly severe pest / plant pathogen outbreak and there is no adequate effective control of a pest (either because we have not yet developed one or because effective treatments have been carried out previously) become ineffective as at the target pest has developed resistance).
In addition, sugar beet is not attractive to pollinators as a crop, which significantly reduces direct exposure to bees. If we had talked about a blooming crop that was attractive to bees / pollinators, I doubt it would ever be approved. This does not mean that there is no concern as there is still indirect exposure or non-zero off-target dust drift when planting seeds (although this is still less drift than a foliar spray).
Hopefully, even if you still disagree with the approved use, you can at least see their reasoning – less risk since it is not an attractive crop for pollinators, and high emergency necessity. The difficulty of growing crops without * any * effective pest control method (be it chemical or other) is much more difficult than the public might think.